Prepared by Sustainable Tucson’s Zero Waste Working Group February 22, 2024

Credit: R/fittingroom

Credit: Institute for Local Self Reliance



Problems with the City’s Zero Waste Planning Process…..4

Sustainable Tucson’s Alternative Zero Waste Roadmap….5

Aiming for Zero Waste…………………………………………8

Actionable Steps for the City of Tucson……………………..9


Waste is one of the biggest crises of our time.  The U.S. accounts for roughly 4% of the global population, but it is responsible for 12% of global municipal solid waste.  Americans throw out an average of 4.9 pounds of materials per person every day – that’s nearly 1,800 pounds of discarded materials per American every year.  Almost 30% of our waste consists of disposable products and packaging used only briefly—before they are dumped in landfills, burned in incinerators, or leaked into the environment.[1]

Managing such vast quantities of waste generated each year poses a major challenge for local governments.  Every year, the City of Tucson (COT) handles more than 700,000 tons of solid waste that is delivered for disposal to the municipally-owned Los Reales Landfill, which is located on the southeast side of the city.  This is a regional landfill that accepts waste from household, commercial, institutional and industrial entities throughout the Tucson metropolitan area.  Only 4%-5% of the region’s solid waste stream is diverted for recycling, composting and other purposes, and this shows no sign of improving in the near future.[2] 

Our garbage problem can’t be solved by simply cleaning up the mess or by better managing it.  In the face of our current environmental challenges like climate change and natural resource depletion, it’s time to shift our thinking about waste by paying more attention to what we produce and consume, and how we deal with it when it is no longer needed. 

Across the U.S., a growing number of cities have taken an organized approach to our waste crisis, increasingly adopting action plans that make “zero waste” the top priority for transitioning our throwaway economy into a circular one that prevents waste at the source and makes better use of valuable materials.  These plans typically will identify a mix of policies, programs, and actions that the community will take to eliminate or divert waste at all levels—from investing more in education and outreach, incentivizing reduction, reuse, and repair, to rethinking recycling services in ways that provide more equitable access and increase materials recovery.

In September 2021, the COT joined the national zero waste movement when Mayor Regina Romero and City Council members gave the green light to Tucson Environmental Services (TES) to undertake a new planning initiative, known as the Zero Waste Roadmap.  The goal of this initiative was to produce a community action plan for attaining 50% waste diversion by 2030 and achieving zero waste by 2050. 


Sustainable Tucson (ST) was initially excited that a local initiative for reforming our resource-intensive, throwaway economy was receiving priority attention at the highest levels of government.  However, our enthusiasm waned when we realized that TES had overlooked the importance of making public participation a key element in the zero waste planning effort.   

Unfortunately, the first five steps of the roadmap were conducted behind closed doors with no opportunities for stakeholder input.  Eight months after the initiative was launched in March 2022, TES convened a community zero waste meeting at the Tucson Fire Department Headquarters.  The turnout was disappointingly low; only 25 people attended the meeting.  In addition, the attendees were limited to commenting on five pre-determined strategies for improving waste reduction efforts in the community.  No additional community meetings were convened despite TES assurances at the beginning of the roadmap process that a “series of workshops, interviews and townhall meetings” would be held to seek widespread public input.[3]   

We also discovered that TES was preoccupied with studying the feasibility of hosting one or more waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities at Los Reales.  This included holding discussions with several project developers.  It soon became clear that TES wanted to make WTE the centerpiece of its zero waste plan.  In June 2022, the department and its engineering consultant solicited 12 project proposals that would convert solid waste into electricity, fuel or fuel ingredients. 

This included eight projects that would use high temperature systems like mass-burn incineration, pyrolysis and gasification.  In August 2023, TES and the Office of Economic Initiatives recommended to the City Council that two of these WTE proposals be included in a federal grant application to create a tech hub for advanced energy and materials in the community.  Fortunately, the project proposals were withdrawn due to concerns with their potential impacts on the environment and human health.[4]  

Finally, there has been a lack of gravity in the TES zero waste planning effort; almost two years have elapsed since the department initiated the roadmap process and we still don’t have a viable, community-wide zero waste plan with a collective vision, objectives, strategies, spending priorities and timelines for action.  Stakeholders have not been kept in the loop since the community meeting in 2022, and they were not afforded an opportunity to comment on an updated roadmap document that was posted on the TES website in September 2023.    


It’s incumbent on us all to find a smarter approach for dealing with our growing garbage problem.  Recycling alone will not be enough to solve the problem.  The emphasis must be shifted from waste management to resource management.  In this challenging time when climate change can be seen everywhere with increasing and worsening extreme weather, the residents of Tucson deserve to live in a more sustainable community where they can make a positive impact. To this end, ST proposes a truly innovative 21st century zero waste plan for the city.  Our Alternative ZW Roadmap engages all four Rs of the zero waste hierarchy.  It prioritizes reducing material consumption first and foremost; reusing and refurbishing everything possible; and recycling and composting all remaining materials.  This approach represents a rethinking of how products are produced, used and consumed, eliminating the concept of waste and keeping materials in circulation at their best and highest use.

Our Alternative ZW Roadmap also prioritizes zero waste systems that can mitigate the mounting crisis of climate change.  While communities tend to focus on transforming their energy sources and transportation systems when addressing climate change, they often overlook how we use all that energy that we produce and why we need it in the first place. 

It turns out over 40% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of the goods we use and foods we eat.  This means consumption is a primary driver of climate emissions.[5]  And the more we buy and throw away, the more energy it takes to make new products, and the faster climate change accelerates.  On the other hand, when we consume less and reuse materials in a continuous cycle, we reduce upstream GHGs and other pollutants produced by the extraction of resources, the use of energy in the production of goods and services, and transportation of goods—paving the way for a more sustainable future. 

Finally, our Alternative ZW Roadmap addresses the operational challenges facing the COT’s residential recycling program.  Over the past several years, the recycling rate for the curbside collection program has declined from a high of 26% in 2003.[6]  The current recycling rate for the program is 10%-11% a year, which is approximately one-half of the national average for residential dwellings.[7]  The recycling program also suffers from high monthly contamination levels, ranging from 25%-29%, costing the COT approximately $300,000 a year in financial penalties for delivering contaminated loads to the local materials recovery facility.[8] 


Zero waste is both an ambitious goal and plan of action.  The goal is to divert 70%-90% of solid waste away from landfills and avoid the use of WTE systems.  The plan encompasses waste reduction, composting, recycling and reuse, changes in consumption habits, and product redesign. 

This is a “whole systems” approach that challenges the perceived inevitability of waste and stands in opposition to our current “take-make-use-waste” consumption model that is not ecologically sustainable.  It prioritizes actions for the most efficient use of resources, placing renewable and less wasteful practices at the top of the solid waste management system.  It also involves a constant evaluation and redesigning of our systems to eliminate needless and/or wasteful consumption.  The principle of zero waste is akin to such principles as “zero accidents” or “zero defects”–which are now well established in the manufacturing sector.[9]

Zero waste does not include high-temperature and heat-treatment processes, such as conventional mass-burn incineration (i.e., combustion with energy recovery) and “conversion technologies” like pyrolysis and gasification that turn plastics, paper, and other materials into burnable fuels.  When you convert something into energy or fuel, it can’t be used again and that is the ultimate act of wasting.  This is not moving us to a circular economy.  Real zero waste solutions prioritize the conservation of resources in waste without thermal treatment or burning of waste and without the resulting environmental discharges to land, air, and water.


ST believes the city can move to a holistic, zero waste path, in which we change our existing extractive systems where we throw away nearly everything, to circular systems—where we reduce waste and recover nearly everything for reuse, refurbishing, recycling and composting. 

Creating a zero waste future requires equal parts policies, programs and infrastructure.  Robust and inclusive stakeholder involvement is also important.  A zero waste community is not built by the government alone.  It requires citizens, businesses, institutions, community groups and government working in concert to create a more sustainable future. 

Our Alternative ZW Roadmap has seven guiding principles:

  • Relies on inclusive stakeholder participation and strong community action in shaping waste management decisions in the community.
  • Recognizes that recycling alone is not enough to address our waste problem by moving upstream and focusing higher up on waste reduction first, and then reuse, refill and refurbish before recycling and composting. 
  • Creates a closed cycle that retains the highest utility and value of products, components and materials for as long as possible.  The emphasis is on cradle-to-cradle recycling, where discarded materials are captured and reintroduced into the manufacturing process in place of virgin raw materials to make similar or new products.  
  • Develops infrastructure and systems to source-separate discards in an effective manner to ensure a steady stream of clean, high quality material is produced that will maximize the diversion of materials for recycling and composting. 
  • Fosters collaboration and creation of partnerships in every sector to achieve zero waste goals.  This includes piloting programs that are adaptable, scalable and resilient. 
  • Steers clear of inefficient, energy-intensive WTE techno-fixes, such as mass-burn incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, co-processing in cement kilns and other false solutions that generate harmful discharges and heat-trapping GHG emissions.
  • Supports producer responsibility initiatives that require product manufacturers to redesign and take responsibility for the full lifecycle of their products, giving them an incentive to create less toxic, more durable, reusable, repairable, and recyclable/compostable products, packaging, and materials.

In addition to the principles outlined above, our proposed action steps are based not only on current waste management conditions in Tucson, but also on a review of zero waste systems being implemented in eco-forward communities, such as Seattle, Palo Alto, Minneapolis, Washington DC, Austin, and Santa Clara County (CA). 

ST recognizes that our plan will require a phased-in, incremental approach that will take several years to implement.  We offer it as a working document to guide decision-making in both the public and private sectors.  The road to zero waste is long and we recognize the need to invest public resources wisely.  Some of our proposed actions can be implemented right away, while others will lay the groundwork to progress and evolve over time.  

The good news is that we don’t have to reinvent the wheel.  Already hundreds of cities around the world have developed zero waste systems, saving them millions, reducing climate pollution and building up local economies.  As the provisions of our Alternative ZW Roadmap show below, the tools already exist.  It’s time to put them into action at the local level.  Our citizens deserve this.  And we can do this. 


  1. Establish zero waste milestones and timelines to achieve 70%-90% diversion of the waste from the local landfill.  
  2. Improve measurement of waste generation and recycling rates to identify where to set zero waste priorities, modify policies and programs, and ensure accountability.  Collect information on waste reduction and recycling from schools, institutions, public housing, hospitals and nursing homes, sporting and entertainment venues and other facilities.
  3. Conduct a real waste characterization analysis of the city’s municipal waste stream (not simply relying on studies from other communities), which includes taking samples of waste, sorting it into material types and weighing each type. 
  4. Require all major solid waste collectors operating in the region to report tonnage and material type of all waste being delivered to Los Reales. 
  5. Provide the community with regular reports that highlight key waste generation, disposal, recycling trends, and accomplishments.  Present data in a manner that is accessible, transparent, and understandable to the public. 
  6. In collaboration with stakeholder groups, review zero waste policy, programs and actions every 2-3 years or as warranted and recommend changes to the Mayor and City Council, when appropriate. 

    Stakeholder Engagement

  1. Appoint a broad stakeholder advisory committee to assist TES with ongoing development and implementation of zero waste policies, programs and infrastructure in the community.  Include representatives from community groups; businesses; commercial property managers; academia; waste collectors; recycling, reuse and composting facilities; and educational institutions.[10] 
  2. Routinely engage on zero waste topics with residents, community groups and businesses, with ongoing in-person and online surveys, meetings and events in public places. 

General Education/Outreach

  1. Develop a comprehensive educational outreach program designed to communicate with residents and businesses about the benefits of zero waste practices and to define their role in helping the COT achieve its zero waste goals.[11] 
  2. Launch a zero waste marketing campaign (e.g., “Make Throwaway Go Away”) to move the community in the direction of a zero waste culture.  Some of the platforms being used by other cities include social media, public service announcements and community newsletters.  Also reach residents through in-person contacts at festivals, fairs, neighborhood meetings, markets and other community events.[12] 
  3. Develop educational materials in multiple languages, use face-to-face techniques and partner with community-based organizations, community centers, neighborhood associations, student groups, and others for in-person training and programs.[13]
  4. Create a one-stop online informational clearinghouse to inform residents on ways to participate in zero waste programs in the city.  The resource should be easy to read, easy to navigate, accurate (updated regularly) and designed to provide useful feedback to the City.[14]  Include information on what can be reused, recycled and repaired easily and how to make your own products to reduce the use of toxic ingredients. 
  5. Create a monthly email newsletter that provides important information and updates on zero waste events, reuse opportunities, webinars, and tips for going sustainable at home and work.  


  1. Collect information on reuse/repair/sharing/donation facilities in the city.  Create a community map that promotes and publicizes opportunities for residents to donate, exchange and/or buy reused goods on the go.  Market the map using the COT newsletter and website.[15]
  2. Create reuse/recycle hubs near public transit that promote reuse, repair, rot, recycle and materials recovery.  These hubs would host meeting spaces to pick up a home compost bin, for yard tool and home repair materials swaps, or for repurposing construction materials.  Integrate nature restorative projects into the reuse hubs, such as pollinator gardens, rainwater collection basins, tree canopies and native seed libraries or exchanges.[16] 
  3. Establish lending libraries that allow people to borrow a wide range of goods that they only need infrequently, including tools for repair.[17]
  4. Expand existing product repair and refurbishment programs, including fix-it clinics like the Tucson Repair Cafe.[18]
  5. Create a strategy for local reuse of textiles that provides incentives for integrating sorting, repair, and upcycling activities in the community.[19]
  6. Promote the use of more sustainable materials (e.g., organic cotton, wool, linen and hemp) to reduce the shedding of microplastics in synthetic fibers made from petroleum-based materials. 
  7. Create a business-to-business byproduct exchange that promotes the reuse of unwanted goods and surplus materials.[20]


  1. Create a business challenge program (e.g., “Mayor’s Zero Waste Leaders”) that provides technical assistance and recognition to businesses that adopt zero waste systems and practices.[21]
  2. Create a mini-grant program (up to $2,500 per grant) to assist businesses and institutions in implementing zero waste systems.  Funding priorities would include waste prevention, reuse, and recovery of food, goods and materials as well as development, marketing, and use of durable, sharable and repairable products.[22]  
  3. Work with restaurants, institutional dining services (e.g., UARIZONA Dining) and entrepreneurs to pilot a reusable take-out container system in the community.[23] 
  4. Establish a voluntary “Skip the Stuff” and/or “Bring Your Own” program for restaurants, cafes, bars, fast food, and other food service providers.  Encourage food providers to provide straws, plastic utensils, napkins and condiment packets only if the customer requests them.[24]
  5. Assist the hotel industry in switching from mini personal-car bottles (shampoo, lotion, etc.) to refill dispensers. 
  6. Partner with retailers to actively educate the public (not just post signage) on the benefits of using of reusable bags, at checkout and in the aisles.[25]  Support the use of package-free and refill services like the Cero zero waste shop. 
  7. Expand refillable hydration systems by installing water bottle refill stations in public areas, such as recreation centers, libraries, and parks.  Prioritize the location of hydration stations within neighborhoods that face the highest levels of water vulnerability to extreme heat risks. 

Residential Recycling

  1. Improve residential recycling rates by reducing materials contamination in the single-stream recycling curbside carts.  Implement the “Feet on the Street” cart-tagging program on a permanent, rotational basis throughout the city to provide residents with real-time recycling education and feedback.  In addition, pilot the use of cameras on the COT recycling trucks to detect incoming contamination or non-recyclable material at the individual household level.[26]  
  2. Provide residential customer information about proper sorting of materials, including developing a suite of tools, like “Oops Tags” to alert customers to missorted materials, offering clear instructions on what goes where.[27]
  3. Pilot a three-cart collection system that would provide for separate collection of recyclables, food/yard waste and refuse.[28]  Do not replace the two-cart or single-stream recycling system with a one-cart system where recyclables are mixed with garbage for recovery at a mixed waste processing facility.[29] 
  4. Achieve greater transparency in the chain of custody of materials placed in recycling carts to see whether and how they are actually being manufactured into new products.  Provide annual updates to the community.

Credit: City of Akron and Waste Today

Commercial/Multi-Family Buildings

  1. Engage commercial waste generators, private waste haulers, building managers, institutions and business associations to develop information about recycling services for multi-family, institutional and commercial buildings in the community.  Quantify existing recycling rates and identify opportunities and challenges to recycling and composting in higher density buildings.  
  2. Develop a technical assistance program to expand voluntary recycling efforts in apartments, condos and townhouses, including funding for educational materials and recycling bins.  Host a workshop annually to share information on best practices for recycling and composting in multi-family buildings.[30]
  3. Adopt an ordinance that phases in a universal recycling requirement for source separation and collection of recyclables within commercial, institutional, and multi-family buildings.  This could take the form of a mandate placed on property managers or waste collectors.

Food Waste Prevention  

  1. Bring together a diverse set of stakeholders, including restaurants, businesses, schools, reuse and surplus food donation organizations, health care facilities, and environmental nonprofits to help build a unified approach for stopping food waste from occurring in the first place.  Focus on options for rescuing and redistributing edible food to people in need and identify ways in which the City can support and expand these efforts.[31]
  2. In collaboration with civic organizations, neighborhood groups and nonprofits, initiate a public campaign (e.g., “Don’t Let Good Food Go Bad”) to raise awareness about preventing wasted food at home and helping households get the most benefit from their money spent on food.  Provide useful information on planning, shopping, prepping, and storing food to help waste less household food. [32] 
  3. In collaboration with Pima Community College, develop educational and training programs for residents, businesses, building managers and institutions on how to prevent food waste, donate edible food and source separate non-edible food waste.


  1. Work with the Pima County Cooperative Extension to expand education regarding home composting of food waste and other materials.  Distribute outreach and informational materials to assist residents through a hotline service and in-person outreach. 
  2. Host workshops/webinars on backyard composting, providing information on the science of composting, different types of composting systems, compost utilization in gardens, and best management practices.
  3. Provide low cost or discounted composting containers or other incentives to help residents compost at home.[33]
  4. Pilot a subscription-based program in which residential households can receive a container for curbside collection of food and yard waste.[34] 
  5. Set annual recruitment goals (>100 participants) and devote resources to expanding the FoodCycle Program for restaurants and other businesses in the community. 
  6. Support market development for compost products.  Work with Tucson Parks and Recreation and Community Gardens of Tucson to promote the use of compost to enrich local soils and increase their carbon sequestering impact. 

Construction/Demolition Debris

  1. Promote salvage and deconstruction for reusable building materials.[35]
  2. Provide grants and incentives for commercial and residential building demolition and remodeling projects to encourage deconstruction techniques, building moves, incorporation of used building materials, and deconstruction training.[36]
  3. Require deconstruction (instead of demolition) for select project sizes and/or project types to increase construction and demolition debris recovery.[37]
  4. Support reuse/recycling market development for construction and demolition debris to support diversion of these materials from the landfill.
  5. Connect contractors, building owners, architects, and developers to deconstruction and used building material resources.  Resources could include funding, local outlets for used materials, deconstruction training, sample project specifications, and used building material design guides to support the growth of deconstruction and building materials reuse.
  6. Work with the business and nonprofit sectors (e.g., HabiStore, Originate and Gersons Building Materials) to promote and expand the use of salvage building materials in the community.[38]

Credit:  Central Vermont Solid Waste Management District

K-12 Schools

  1. Expand waste literacy in the classroom and empower students to learn about waste avoidance/litter reduction and develop positive environmental habits.[39]
  2. Work with the Tucson Unified District and other school districts to ensure that school cafeterias instill best practices for food waste reduction and donation in their operations.
  3. Work with school district procurement departments to reduce waste and save money by shifting to reusable trays/utensils and bulk beverage dispensers with refillable cups.[40]
  4. Provide grants to community gardens and schools to educate students about the benefits of growing their own food, making compost in the garden, and utilizing gardens to supplement home food menus.[41]  Include information to help parents and students start a vegetable garden to grow food at home. 

Special Events

  1. Create a zero waste special event planning guide to help event planners incorporate waste-reducing practices into public and private events.[42]
  2. Require all permitted special events with an anticipated attendance of 250 people or more and all event venues with a capacity of 1,000+ in the city to submit a zero waste plan.

Household Hazardous Waste

  1. Pilot a hard-to-recycle materials collection fleet, powered by light-duty, zero-emission vehicles and bicycles to circulate in parts of the city, providing residents with convenient access to drop off household hazardous wastes, such as pharmaceuticals, sharps, batteries and electronics.
  2. Expand educational efforts to make more residents aware of existing household hazardous waste collection sites and events via radio/tv announcements, social media, community events and informational posters.


  1. Pilot a variable-pricing program for residential waste collection (commonly referred to as “Pay-As-You-Throw”), which would charge households for waste collection based on the amount of waste they throw away in the same way they are charged for electricity, gas, and other utilities.  Ensure that the price differential between trash cart service levels is greater than $5 to incentivize waste reduction, reuse and recycling.  Offer a senior or low-income citizen discount to qualified residents.[43] 


  1. Support and encourage legislation that assigns consumer product companies greater responsibility for end-of-life management of the products they introduce to the market and encourages innovations in product design.[44] 
  2. Pass a resolution supporting the Break Free from Plastic Pollution Act, which is a comprehensive federal bill aimed at reducing the overproduction of single-use plastic products and packaging and preventing pollution from consumer products and packaging from entering into animal and human food chains and waterways, and for other purposes.[45]
  3. Support Right-to-Repair legislation that requires products to be easier and cheaper to repair, while making replacement parts affordable and repair information available.[46] 
  4. Advocate for the repeal of the State’s prohibition on municipal ordinances that impose a ban or tax on single-use grocery bags and other disposable packaging materials.
  5. “Lead by example” and implement a zero waste policy for all City buildings and operations.  Develop and maintain information on zero waste products and incorporate specifications (e.g., requirement for recycled content) into City bid solicitations, where practicable.[47] 
  6. Promote tax incentives and credits for businesses that implement zero waste systems. 
  7. Coordinate with Pima County, federally recognized tribes and neighboring communities to grow waste reduction, reuse, repair, recycling, and composting infrastructure within the region.  Establish uniform rules and requirements for recycling and composting.  

Climate Action

  1. Devise a system that takes into account the full-life cycle GHG emissions of products and materials, including embedded carbon and upstream emissions, into local climate policy and program development.[48]
  2. Align waste reduction and resource recovery goals to assist with climate action and resource conservation.
  3. Develop a reliable system for limiting fugitive air conditioner refrigerant emissions. 
  4. Pilot the use of at least two battery-powered trucks for collecting waste and recyclables.  Concurrently, develop a plan to minimize local air pollution impacts by transitioning the City’s heavy-duty vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel powered (e.g., diesel and natural gas) vehicles to zero-emission vehicles.
  5. Site renewable energy generation, battery storage units and vehicle charging stations in key areas of the city to support zero-emission trucks for solid waste and recycling collection. 


  1. Add a per-ton surcharge on waste landfilled at the Los Reales Landfill to raise funds for zero waste education, outreach and incentive programs.  The surcharge would be charged or billed to residential, commercial and industrial waste haulers.[49]  Allocate funds from the waste disposal surcharge to support waste reduction, reuse, recycling, and composting initiatives in the community. 


  1. Ban the construction of WTE facilities within city limits, including but not limited to mass-burn incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and plasma arc systems. 
  2. Prohibit the conversion of paper, plastic, wood and other discards into fuel pellets (“refuse-derived fuel”) via the mixed-waste processing facility at Los Reales.  The fuel pellets would be sent to cement kilns and other industrial facilities in the region. 

Credit: City of Akron and Waste Today

[1] Environment America, Trash in America,

[2] HDR, Current Conditions Assessment for Zero Waste Roadmap Development, prepared for Tucson Environmental Services, June 2022,

[3] TES, Draft Zero Waste Roadmap, September 2021

[4] Tucson Officials Ditch ‘Waste to Energy’ Proposal — Again,

[5] U.S. EPA, Climate and Waste Statistics,,and%20the%20goods%20we%20use

[6] Tucson Triples Residential Recycling Rate,

[7] HDR, Conditions Assessment for Zero Waste Roadmap Development, June 2022 and Waste Today, Report Identifies Gaps in US Residential Recycling Systems,,Residential%20Recycling%20in%20the%20U.S.%E2%80%9D

[8] Ibid

[9] Wikipedia, Zero Waste,

[10] Recommendations of Boston’s Zero Waste Advisory Committee,

[11] Ecology Center, Recycling and Zero Waste Education, and Home Resource, Zero Waste Leadership,

[12] Get involved in Zero Waste Vancouver, and King County’s (WA) Re+ Plan,

[13] City of Austin, Zero Waste Block Leaders and City of Boston, Zero Waste Educational Materials,

[14] Eco-Cycle, A–Z Recycling Guide for Boulder County (CO),, Zero Waste Marin (CA), Zero Waste Resources,, Green Oceanside Mobile App, and Tucson Clean and Beautiful, Recycling Directory,

[15] Coalfield Development (WV), Reuse Corridor,, Dakota Valley (MN), Reduce and Reuse Map, and Reuse Guide for Boulder County (CO),

[16] Waste 360, ReUse Corridor Breathes Life into Central Appalachia, and Eco-Cycle Center for Hard-to-Recycle Materials,

[17] Berkeley (CA) Public Library, Tool Lending Library, and Vancouver (BC), Tool Library,

[18] Eco-Cycle Repair Guide for Boulder County (CO),

[19] TreeHugger, How to Recycle Textiles: Give New Life to Old Clothes,,  Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Textiles Reuse and Recycling,–Recycling#Setting and Sustainable Westport (CT), Textile Waste: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle,

[20] City of Austin (TX), Materials Marketplace,

[21] City of Philadelphia, Zero Waste Partnership,, New York City, Zero Waste Challenge, and  RecyclingWorks (MA), Technical Assistance,

[22] Upstream Solutions, Municipal Incentives and Grants for Reuse,, City of Alameda (CA), Waste Prevention Grant Opportunities,, City Funds Reuse Incentives for Local Businesses (Boulder, CO), and ReThink Disposable is Helping Restaurants Tackle Philly’s Plastic Problem,

[23] U-M Study Finds Reusable Take-out Food Containers can Significantly Reduce Plastic Waste, Emissions, Costs, New York City Restaurants Partner with DeliverZero to Provide Reusable Takeout Containers,  Ann Arbor Businesses Implement Returnable Takeout Container Program, and Oregon State University, Eco2Go Food Containers,

[24] Upstream Solutions, Skip the Stuff Campaign,,   County of Los Angeles, Bring Your Own (BYO), and Denver Post, Colorado Communities, Restaurants Join National Push Away from Plastic Straws,

[25] City of Renton, Bring Your Own Bag,

[26]  Resource Recycling, Cart Tags: A Growing Force in Fight Against Contamination, and Waste 360,  Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a “Game Changer” for Waste Contamination Detection,

[27] Recycling Partnership, Anti-Contamination Recycling Kit,

[28] Cowichan Valley Regional District (BC), Three Stream Curbside Collection, and Waste Management Review, How San Francisco Became the First Zero-Waste City in America,

[29]  Earth911, Mixed Feelings On Mixed Waste, Still,

[30] Hennepin County (MN),  Multifamily Recycling: Apartments, Condos and Townhomes, and Recycling Today, Figuring Out Multifamily Recycling,

[31] Columbus Dispatch, How Franklin County is Cutting Back on the 1 million Pounds of Food Wasted Every Day, and Central Ohio, Food Waste Action Plan,

[32] City of Philadelphia, Introducing the Eat Away at Food Waste Campaign,, City of Rochester (NY), Food Waste Education Outreach Program, and Solid Waste Authority of Central Ohio, Food Waste Prevention Hub,

[33] City of Chicago’s Sustainable Backyards Program: Compost Bins,,  Los Angeles County Public Works, Smart Gardening Compost Bins, and City of San Diego, Compost Bin Voucher Program,

[34] BioCycle Nationwide Survey: Residential Food Waste Collection Access In The U.S.,

[35] Almost 90% Of Construction Waste Can Be Reused/Recycled,

[36] Resource Central, Materials Reuse,, County of Alameda (CA), Reuse and Repair Grants,, Ramsey County (MN), Building Materials Reuse, Salvage and Deconstruction, and Hennepin County, New Grants Pay to Salvage, Reuse, and Recycle, 

[37] Denver ABC, How Boulder’s First Deconstruction Project Could Pave Way for other Communities,

[38] Houston Reuse Warehouse,, Chicago Rebuilding Exchange, and Maywood (IL) Reuse Depot,

[39] City of Vancouver (BC) School Zero Waste Program,, Greenwich (CT) Public Schools, Zero Waste Schools Programs,, Boston Public Schools, Green Schools, and Green Schools National Network, Zero Waste for Schools,

[40] Center for Environmental Health, Hold the Plastic, Please: Reusable Food Tray Project Reduces Waste and Toxics  and Seven Generations Ahead, Zero Waste Schools Lunchrooms,

[41] USDA, School Gardens: Using Gardens to Grow Healthy Habits in Cafeterias, Classrooms and Communities,,and%20to%20promote%20community%20inclusion

[42] City of Pheonix, Zero Waste Event Guide, and Zero Waste DC, Guide to Waste Reduction at Events,

[43] U.S. EPA. Variable Rate Pricing,,the%20community’s%20PAYT%20program%20goals, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, An Implementation Guide

for Solid Waste Unit-Based Pricing Programs, and Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, Variable Rate Pricing (aka unit-based pricing) Guide and Sample Ordinance for Municipalities,

[44] National Conference of State Legislatures, Extended Producer Responsibility,,Extended%20producer%20responsibility%20(EPR)%20is%20a%20policy%20approach%20that%20assigns,mandatory%20type%20of%20product%20stewardship.

[45]City of Middletown (CT), Resolution Supporting the Break Free from Plastic Pollution Act,—1-March-2021?bidId=

[46], Right to Repair Legislation,

[47] County of Santa Clara (CA), Zero Waste Policy For County Facilities and Operations,   

[48] C40 Knowledge, How to Cut Your City’s Consumption-based Emissions,

[49]  Biocycle, Waste Disposal Surcharges Review,